On March 12, 2013, James Clapper, Barack Obama’s Director of National Intelligence, appeared before the US Senate’s Select Committee on Intelligence. Asked whether America’s National Security Agency collected “any type of data at all on millions or hundreds of millions of Americans,” Clapper responded: “No sir. Not wittingly.” This answer was unsurprising. If Clapper had said “yes”, he would have been convicting his agency of activities that almost certainly violated the U.S. Constitution.
A 29-year-old NSA contractor named Edward Snowden was watching Clapper’s testimony with an especially keen eye ... [read more]